In this world that is constantly changing and facing ever more complex challenges in all areas of life, it is increasingly imperative to cultivate empathy, solidarity and respect for human rights, as well as to understand the world as an interrelated total. The answer to the current complex world situation is to build another relationship with knowledge and the world through education that builds bridges of rapprochement and cooperation with others but also offers opportunities to redefine our role in the world and our relationship with him. Global Education seeks to put into practice the vision needed to move on to a model of understanding, social justice and cooperation between people. World Education offers the place to make changes to creating responsible citizens with a global mindset who assume responsibility and shape a common vision for a more just and sustainable world for all.
Researching the bibliography shows that it means different things to different people or institutions, which makes it difficult to conceptualize it.
There are many definitions of World Education. The Maastricht Declaration states: “It is the education that opens the look and the minds of the people in the realities of the world and awakens them, to claim a fairer world, a world of equality and human rights for all. Global Education embraces all forms of Citizenship Education, namely Development Education, Human Rights Education, Education for Sustainability, Peace Education, Education for Peace and Conflict Prevention and Intercultural Education. It is the global dimension of Education for Citizenship. “This definition was given at the International Conference of the Council of Europe’s North North Center on” Strategies for increasing and improving global education “held in Nicosia in March 2002 and was adopted in the Maastricht Declaration in October of the same year. North South Center http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/nscentre/default_en.asp
It is a dynamic educational process that aims to make the learner aware of his role as a global citizen and to take individual and collective actions to solve local, national or global problems. Therefore, World Education is directly related to the issues of sustainability of the planet and the citizens of the world.
The above practices and guidelines could have no impact on formal and non-formal education in Greece. It is imperative more than ever in our country with the modern challenges it experiences, to create a school open to the society embracing diversity and fostering respect for human rights and dignity. We already have many and worthwhile school projects that we would say that fit into various areas of World Education, such as human rights education and environmental education.
In Greece, and in Greek schools in particular, we could say that these programs fall under the broader umbrella of Citizenship, Active Citizen or Active Citizenship.
Since the early years of the Greek state, the need for the Greeks to have a political and social identity has emerged to overcome the problems that existed. However, Citizenship Education or World Education programs should not be limited to individual school subjects (eg social and civic education) or within the framework of Environmental Education programs or cultural projects undertaken by teachers with their pupils .
Typically, these programs are downgraded and considered secondary to basic language and mathematical language courses. Citizenship Education or Global Education should be a holistic approach that can be applied to the wider school environment and ideally involve the whole school as a training institution, and permeate its ethos and culture. It would be obvious that the values it supports in all structures, for example in decision-making, policy-making and relations between pupils, teachers, parents and the wider community, should be shown.
Global Education issues and values are incorporated in the national curriculum and aim to transform individuals into active citizens inspired by democracy, social justice and solidarity, to promote gender equality and sustainable development. The emphasis in the curriculum is on cross-cultural and multidisciplinary approaches for the motivation of children and the development of free thinking. The overall socio-economic crisis, combined with the large influx of refugees in Greece, has highlighted the need for Global Education, citizenship education, human rights education in order to encourage appreciation of different cultural identities and everyone’s contribution to the enrichment of the community. The new curriculum focuses on children’s awareness of diversity, equality and human rights, as well as a pedagogy that values the respect and acceptance of all forms of diversity.
The General Secretariat for the Coordination of the Government has invited all competent ministries in the context of the Sustainable Development Goals to map national efforts by policy sector and to formulate a National Action Plan. The Ministry of Education is responsible for the mapping and action on Goal 4, with emphasis on targets 4.7 and will also focus on synergies with other ministries such as Employment and Social Policy, Environment, Health, Justice etc.
However, World Education is widely applied to non-governmental organizations and youth organizations.
Considering all of the above, we conclude that structural changes are required at the institutional level in order to formulate a strategy where the objectives of World Education or Citizenship will be in line with the wider objectives of the country’s education system.
Problems during research
The survey found that there was a lack of bibliography and the bibliography found was mostly from Cyprus since it was recognized by the Ministry of Education. In addition, the concept in Greek is often confused with world educational trends, or with education abroad, making it difficult for the researcher.
GE in Youth Sector
There are many organisations in Greece that self-declare as youth organisations. However, youth work in Greece is a field that has not been defined, neither recognised by the Greek state. Therefore, there is not a law that defines what a youth organisation is, what a youth worker or youth work.
In Greece there is the Hellenic National Youth Council which it is an independent, non-government, non-profit federation of youth organizations. Yet, not many organisations are members of it as it is comprised mostly by political organisations. Hellenic National Youth Council represents Greece in the European Youth Forum.
Recently a Hellenic Youth Workers Association has been established which aims in creating a framework for recognition and certification of the profession in Greece.
Global education in youth work in Greece is hard to be measured as first global education has not been recognised and moreover there is not a place where youth workers can share their work to be.
GE Best Practices
In the following paragraphs we have collected some of those national and local experience that we found relevant.
Project: One song, many schools, one world
Implementing body: ActionAid Hellas
Funding: own funding
It was held in March 2017 in 700 schools in Greece. Its content concerned the right of refugee children to education and was held in the framework of the World Action Week for Education, an international campaign in which ActionAid has been participating since 2004. The ActionAid program promotes in practice the 4th Sustainable Development Goal that is quality education for all!
The project was awarded with the Global Education Innovation Award, by the transnational agency for education in Europe, Global Education Network Europe.
Project: S.A.M.E. WORLD: Sustainability – Awareness – Mobilization – Environment in Global Education
Implementing body: C.I.E.S. Onlus, IT
It is co-funded by EuropeAid and has a duration of 3 years (1/2015 – 1/2018). In the year 2015, it actively supports the objectives and campaign of the European Year of Development (EYD2015).
Partners: APS-Associação de Professores de Sintra (PT), arche noVa (DE), Artemissziò Foundation (HU), BGRF-Bulgarian Gender Research Foundation (BG), CEPS-Associacio per a la Creacio d’ Estudis i Projectes Socials (ES), CeVI-Centro di Volontariato Internazionale (IT), CTI-Computer Technology Institute & Press «Diophantus» (GR), Consorzio FOR.COM. (IT), Humanitas-Society for Human Rights and Supportive Action (SI), Istituto Oikos Onlus (IT), Peipsi Center for Transboundary Cooperation (ET), Slovak Centre for Communication and Development (SK)
The S.A.M.E. WORLD project aims to raise awareness among students and teachers on three issues of Environmental Education: Environmental Justice, Climate Change and Environmental Migration, through innovative technological and experiential approaches.
Non-viable ways of living are a major cause of climate change, often leading to environmental migration, a type of migration that has affected a very large number of people over the last decade. On the other hand, environmental injustice, the relationship between the World North and the World South, environmental racism and the environmental migrations that climate change leads are often not included in school education programs. Engaging these topics allows them to understand their importance and encourage more conscious and responsible everyday habits.
The SAMEWE project introduces to school education the concept of Environmental Justice, ie equal access to safe and healthy living conditions, and aims at critical understanding and active participation of students and teachers in issues related to climate change and environmental migration.
During the project, three international seminars and roundtables are organized to promote the exchange of experiences between teachers, scientists, students, educators, local authorities, environmental organizations and others. The aim is to formulate proposals for the integration of these subjects into the curricula of the European countries.
A training package with scenarios and training material is being developed within the project’s core themes. Information and awareness actions are also planned: Educational workshops, external actions with students and families, an online role play, a theatrical play on Environmental Justice and Nutrition, to be presented at schools and EXPO 2015.
In addition, an Observatory against Environmental Disorder will be set up with the use of social networks, which will highlight issues of unequal distribution of environmental risks. Finally, a European competition for good environmental education practices will be carried out in European curricula.
The project is being implemented by thirteen (13) European operators in ten European Union countries, with the support of twelve other North and South players, coordinated by CIES Onlus (IT).
Global Education Network Europe (2017), The State of Global Education in Europe 2017, p.43
Action Aid Hellas, Global Education, retrieved from http://education.actionaid.gr/media/1772930/ActionAid-Global-Education.pdf, last on 05/03/2018.
Voudrislis Nikolaos (2016), The Contribution of Geography and Social and Political Education to Global Education for Global Citizenship
Kaliantzi Gkolfo (2016), Integration of climate change into the curriculum of primary education with the support of communication information technologies
European Innovation Award in ActionAid Greece’s educational project, retrieved from http://globalsustain.org/el/story/23018, last on 05/03/2018.